Posted in Autism, Down syndrome, Dual Diagnosis Down syndrome and autism, Education and Special Needs

Blog #231~Special Needs Tips for Making Accommodations in the Classroom

Blog #231 Special Needs Tips for Making Accommodations in the Classroom

Last week, I focused on 5 back to school tips for special needs parents. For today’s post I want to put a lens on what accommodations look like and their importance in the classroom setting for a student with special needs.

Accommodations are changes that remove barriers and provide a student with equal access to learning. As a parent, it is essential to make sure that agreed upon accommodations and supports are written into your child’s IEP, and in place before the first day of school.

My son Nick is 25 years old and has a dual diagnosis of Down syndrome and autism (DS-ASD). Over the years he had many accommodations to support his learning and navigation in the school environment. Nick didn’t walk until age 3 1/2 years old due to low muscle tone (a trait of having Down syndrome). In pre-school, the IEP team made an accommodation to transport Nick from point A to B in the building, and in/out of the car line.  Accommodations can come in many forms to support intellectual and developmental disabilities.

visual support ring

Here are some examples of accommodations that can be used in the classroom:

*Communication Notebook and daily reports sent back and forth from school to home

*Classroom Schedule,  Individual Visual Schedules and Social Stories

Nick fist bump AID                   social story working desk

*Alternative Media Tools- Flash cards, board games, computer programs, learning apps/games, AAC (augmentative and alternative communication) and assistive technology devices, PECS (picture exchange communication), sign language, etc.

nick aac

*Sensory Tools help with self-regulation- Figits, stress balls, pencil toppers, tangle puzzles, weighted vests or lap pads, nubby sit cushions, stability balls, etc.

alternative seating

*Motor Breaks and Sensory/Quiet Corners– Build breaks into a student’s schedule. Some can be motor breaks or a sensory/quiet break depending on the need. Equip with items such as rocking or bean bag chairs, mini-trampolines, swings, weighted blankets, noise cancelling earphones, need a break icon etc.

*Visual aids, worksheets and paraprofessionals/aides to assist to accompany lesson objectives and test taking.

*Transition tools- Early hall passing before the bell rings, transition objects, visual schedules, visual timers, etc.

transition timer

*Choice boards to encourage decision making and independent learning skills.

*Work and Reward Charts:

working for chart   first then work

Building in accommodations and supports into your student’s IEP and classroom setting help enhance learning in a positive school environment. Often, individuals with autism and a dual diagnosis of DS-ASD, like my son, thrive with the use of visual prompts to navigate their days more smoothly. The right accommodations make it possible to have a successful learning environment that is less stressful.

That’s what is in my noggin this week. 🙂

~Teresa 

Follow Nick:

Facebook and Pinterest @Down syndrome With a Slice of Autism

Instagram #nickdsautism

Twitter @tjunnerstall

 

Posted in Autism, Down syndrome, Dual Diagnosis Down syndrome and autism, Education and Special Needs, IEP (Indivdualized Education Plan)

Blog #199~Take Action Before the School Year Ends

Blog #199~Take Action Before the School Year Ends

How’s the school year going?  If you have a child with special needs; who is non-verbal or limited in speech, it’s difficult to know how they are navigating their day.  This is where you as the parent, have to be pro-active regarding your child’s progress.  Are they achieving the goals set in their Individual Education Plan (IEP)?  As a parent of a child with a dual diagnosis of Down syndrome and autism, I’ve learned the importance of staying on top of my son’s progress and behavior while in school.  Mid-year is a critical time to re-evaluate the teaching methods and current goals set in place, to help your child succeed.

Here are five things parents can do now, to take action before the school year ends:

#1 How are you communicating with the school staff?

If you child is non-verbal or limited in speech, it’s imperative to find a way to dispatch information daily via email, text and/or a communication notebook.  Daily reports work can be created and customized to share about your child’s day, like these……

daily check sheet   daily check sheet two

#2 Organize all correspondence with the school and staff.

Use one notebook or binder for all meetings, conferences and IEP’s so you can refer back at anytime.  Keep all documents in this binder regarding your child, so it’s at your fingertips.  Log in dates and times of any correspondence with school.  Keep all school emails in a separate folder, on your computer.

#3 Review your child’s Individual Education Plan (IEP).

The IEP outlines academic and functional goals, supports needed, accommodations and services. Compare the current IEP goals to the quarterly reports.  How much progress has your child made in each goal area?  Are there any red flags (No Progress- NP)?  Make notes of your concerns.  What additional supports or accommodations that might better help your child succeed?

Examples of supports and accommodations:

Ex/ Halls or assemblies are crowded and loud.  The student experiences sensory overload, leading to meltdowns.  Add supports and accommodations such as noise cancelling headphones paired with a break card.  Have the child transition five minutes before the bell rings when the halls are quiet.

Break Icon   noise cancelling headphones

Ex/ Student shuts down to avoids a task, because it is too difficult.  Break down the task into individual steps supported with a visual task strip.  Set them up for success!

counting task strip       Nick packaging door knobs_Habitat_4 (2)

#4 Contact your child’s teacher to discuss ways to keep your child on track for the rest of the school year.

Request a meeting with the IEP team if there are setbacks in behavior, or “No Progress” (NP) being made on IEP goals.  Goals and the behavior plan can be adjusted anytime during the school year.  A meeting may be necessary if there are any new behavior problems that need to be addressed.

Ex/ Student needs motivation to complete work.  Create an incentive chart to work and earn a reward.  Brainstorm with the school staff to find a reward that is highly motivating for the student.  This  particular reward should only available upon completion of tasks.

working for chart

Ex/ Student has difficulties transitioning to the  next activity.  Make visual schedules for the student to navigate their daily routine.  Giving the student control with visuals, will help to reduce anxiety, and foster independent living skills.

APE swimming 006 (4)

Visual timers help a student stay on task, and then transition to the next activity….

visual timer app

#5 Look at the big picture of your child’s current growth and well-being.

Are the current goals ultimately promoting your child’s further education, employment and independent living?  Are the goals meaningful and relevant for their level of performance?

Does your child look forward to going to school each day?  Are there any signs that your child is withdrawing or regressing in performance and behavior?

Make notes and meet with the teacher at any time before the next IEP meeting. Collaborte together with the school IEP team, to make adjustments and accommodations as needed regarding goals and behavior.

IEP-Picture

Consistent communication, organization, and IEP goal and behavior reviews, are essential for a parent to do, throughout the school year.  Collaboration with the school staff will ensure a strong finish, for the remaining semester.  This will also make team planning for the next school year much easier, with no surprises.

That’s what is in my noggin this week. 🙂

~Teresa

Follow Nick:

Facebook and Pinterest @Down Syndrome With A Slice Of Autism

Instagram #nickdsautism

Twitter @tjunnerstall

 

 

Posted in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Behavior/ ABA, Down syndrome, Dual Diagnosis Down syndrome and autism

Blog #184~ Addressing Problem Behaviors in Individuals with DS/ASD

Blog #184~Addressing Problem Behaviors in Individuals with DS/ASD

Problem behaviors in individuals with Down syndrome and autism (DS/ASD), are very common.  Speech deficits, make it difficult to communicate wants and needs.  Often individuals with DS/ASD, may exhibit problem behaviors to communicate something.  Last week I participated in a webinar about addressing such behaviors, led by Sam Towers (http://sam@towersbehavior.com), that was hosted by The Down Syndrome Association of Minnesota.  Here is a summary of this webinar on addressing problem behaviors in individuals with DS/ASD.

First of all, it is important to build rapport.   Establish a friendship with kindness, and positive activities that the individual enjoys.  This will provide the basis for teaching the person, that there are other ways, besides problem behavior, for achieving goals.  Sam suggested a 10:1 ratio of praising good behaviors.  Praise encourages the individual to do it again.

Why do people use problem behaviors?

1.Get attention

2.Get something

3.Escape or avoid something unpleasant

4.Get a pleasant sensation

All behaviors allow a person to achieve a goal, because the payoff is reinforcement.  You get what you pay more attention to.  The idea is to avoid letting problem behaviors have a payoff.  So, focus ALOT more on addressing the good behaviors.  This can be done by building skills, through teaching replacement behaviors.  If a child is throwing things to get attention, the replacement behavior could be to teach them to tap you on the shoulder or use their communication device.

My son Nick is 23 years old and has a dual diagnosis of DS/ASD.  He has many behaviors that are used to get attention or something, and provide a pleasant sensation.  Part of the autism piece is sensory related.  Flushing the toilet repeatedly, pushing the microwave fan or phone intercom buttons are ways that he stims, which is a form of self-entertainment.  One suggestion, for this would be to teach other ways for him to entertain himself.  Some supports that I recommend, are to use social stories, redirect to an AAC (Aumentative Alternative Communication) device, PECS (Picture Exchange Communication) book, or create a choice board.

Choice Boards:

choice boards

If an individual is trying to get out of an activity, they may exhibit behaviors like self-injury, yelling, or stop-drop and plop.  In these cases, it’s important to provide supports like, a first-then charts, “take a break” card, noise cancelling headphones, a visual schedule, or a timed timer.

timer app    first then  1,2,3,4 Sprite

Bottom line, you can’t let the problem behavior become the payoff.  The single most effective way to get rid of a problem behavior, is to arrange things so that there is no payoff (reinforcement) for the behavior. Completely withholding reinforcement can be difficult, and often leads to an increase in the behavior.  This is called an extinction boost.  But if you stick to your guns, this will result in the behavior decreasing.  The key is to be consistent in not rewarding the undesirable behavior.  If it is reinforced intermittently, it will cause the behavior to be more long-lasting, because there is still some payoff for the individual.

Understanding the reasons people use problem behaviors, building skills and supports to teach replacement behaviors, praising 10:1 good behaviors, and arranging things so that there is no payoff for the problem behavior are all great tools for addressing problem behaviors in individuals with DS/ASD.  Here are a few resources which may also help:

Edward Carr Book    Social Story Book  visual strategies book

When Down Syndrome and Autism Intersect,
edited by Margaret Froehlke and Robin Zaborek:  

down syndrome and autism intersect

A special thank you to the Down Syndrome Association of Minnesota and Sam Towers of Towers Behavior Services for an informative webinar.  Now, it’s time to make a new choice board for Nick.  Have a great week, everyone.

That’s what is in my noggin this week! 🙂

~Teresa

Follow Nick:

Down Syndrome With A Slice Of Autism on Facebook and Pinterest

#nickdsautism on Instagram

@tjunnerstall on Twitter