Posted in Autism, Behavior/ ABA, Feeding, Personal Hygiene, Toileting

Blog #51~Pushing My Buttons

Blog #51~Pushing My Buttons

Pushing the microwave and phone intercom buttons, running water faucets full blast, dumping out coffee mugs…. You name it Nick does it. I try to ignore the behavior and not give him any attention which is what he desires.  This tactic isn’t really working.  Now what?  Enter Toni Van Laarhoven, Associate Professor at Northern Illinois University.  She spoke at the NADS Behavior Retreat a few weekends ago.  Before she did her presentation on using video modeling to teach behaviors she spent some time talking about the struggles that we as parents were going through. The NADS (National Down Syndrome Association) retreat families all have children with Down syndrome and autism.  I sat up in my chair, she had my full attention. I began jotting notes in my journal frantically as she spoke.  I am always looking for solutions, she had me at DRO.  

It’s been a long time since my days of taking psychology classes at The University of Texas.

Longhorn logo

I remember the basics but this technique I have never tried with Nick.  What is DRO?  It stands for Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior, and it is the delivery of reinforcement. This reinforcement procedure is designed to reduce a given behavior by increasing alternative behavior while withholding reinforcement for the unwanted response.

 I did a little research and have to give credit to Toni Van Laarhoven and these two resources: 

Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., & Heward, W.L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (Second Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Sulzer-Azaroff, B. & Mayer G.R. (1991). Behavior Analysis for Lasting Change. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson

Here is my take on this technique and how I might apply it to help with some of Nick’s behaviors.  DRO is a specific schedule of reinforcement that is used to decrease the rate of behaviors that are inappropriate.  It is time-dependent, so rather than responding to a behavior after the fact you reinforce the time that the child is NOT engaging in the inappropriate behavior. In essence, you catch them being good. 🙂

angel pic

Advantages of using DRO: 

* Decreases inappropriate behaviors rapidly

* Positive approach to change inappropriate behaviors

* Used to reduce a wide variety of behaviors

* Easy to implement

Guidelines for implementing a DRO Program: 

* Define the target behavior.

* Determine highly preferred items or activities to be used as reinforcement.

* Collect baseline data of current behavior, how often does this occur?

* Set initial DRO intervals just below the average period of time that the child  emits the inappropriate behavior. (5, 10, 15 minutes?)

* Explain rules to earn reinforcement.  Child will earn reinforcement if they do not engage in the target behavior during each interval.

*DRO may be more effective when combined reinforcing replacement behaviors.

*Use visual supports (tokens, picture of reward)

*At the end of the time period, provide the child with the reward if the target  behavior was not emitted.

* If the child engages in the target behavior, inform them that there will be no reward at that time.

* Start time period and continue sequence above.

*Implement daily and consistently.

* As the student makes progress, increase the time period.

Here is what I picture with Nick.  The target behavior will be pushing the phone intercom button.  I will do some data keeping on how often he does this.  In addition, I will see what is occurring in the environment that might trigger him doing this and make a note in the behavior journal.  Once a pattern is established I will set the interval schedule.  Next will be determining what motivates Nick.  Normally he is rewarded with a Sprite when he does his work bins well.  However I am going to use a different reward specific to this DRO project.  Nick enjoys watching Funny Cats on You Tube and the laptop is right by the phone.  Right now I am thinking this might work.  I like the idea of doing a visual token system for Nick.  Toni mentioned making a puzzle of the highly preferred item.  For each successful interval you put a piece in the puzzle.  Once the puzzle is filled in then Nick would get his reward  🙂

you tube cat pic

The DRO technique could be used in home and in the classroom as well.  One instance might be a child who interrupts the teacher during classroom instruction. The end result is to have the child learn to exercise more self control.  This may sound like a lot of work.  The data keeping and setting of the interval schedule can be tedious.  Flashback to the toilet training days….. this is when I use to put Nick on the throne every 30 minutes and do a dry pants check.  I also kept data on how often he took in food and drinks. Over time I saw a pattern of two things.  First,  was how long he could stay dry and clean.  Secondly I figured out what amount of time it took him to digest what he ate and drank thus needing to use the bathroom. This is how I habit trained him.  As he matured he was able to self-monitor toileting on his own. Put the time and effort on the front end (so to speak 😉 ) and there will be a payoff.  That’s what is in my noggin this week….. Stay tuned…..

~Teresa 🙂

Posted in Autism, Down syndrome, Education and Special Needs

Blog # 24~Top 10 Things I Have Learned While Navigating Nick through School

Top 10 Things I Have Learned While Navigating Nick through School

This weekend I was prepping for a lecture called “A Parent Perspective” which I do at Aurora University.  For this semester there are two classes one undergrad and a graduate student class all who are/ or planning to become teachers.  Since Nick is a senior in high school I decided to include a top ten list of some things I have figured out over the years. While compiling this list I couldn’t help but think back to those early days. I was a novice and such a chicken when it came to IEP meetings.  I have a degree in teaching secondary education (Kinesiology and Health) but very little experience teaching special education.  I took a class similar to the one I am lecturing while at The University of Texas.  It gave a broad brush of special education and included an internship in a self- contained classroom and gym class. Beyond this I knew very little on how to take the helm and steer these uncharted waters.

Aurora University working with Elliott who leads the classes….

The early intervention program was easy (birth-three years old.)  The staff was nurturing and it was a *can of corn.  Once the cord was cut Nick entered the early childhood/ pre-school program things were more serious and the meetings took on a different tone.

Because Nick had very low muscle tone (a trait of Down syndrome see blog #7 Mama Mia, for more information on DS traits) he was delayed in gross motor activities.  He didn’t walk until age 3 ½ nor eat solid foods.  At age three during the transition from early intervention to early childhood/pre-school I enlisted a private speech therapist who specialized in feeding.  Amazing how one person can impact your life.  Pam opened up my eyes.  She got me thinking outside the box.  She also worked at a private school in Houston and suggested we look at putting Nick there.  The private school called The Arbor School had one opening three days a week.  It was an oasis, this all-inclusive resort with all of the speech, occupational and physical therapy right on campus working together.  They got their hands on Nick and worked magic. Nick attended The Arbor School three days a week and the public preschool program the other two days.  When the IEP came around at the public school, the whole Arbor School team came.   Our entourage sat down and matter of fact like made sure every attention to detail was addressed.  I was stunned.  What you can actually assert for yourself and get all kinds of services, equipment and therapy hours, I had no idea.

Nick at the Arbor School…..

The petting zoo came to the Arbor School during Go Texas Rodeo Week…

In California when Nick was in first grade I found my concerns of his need for a communication system going on deaf ears.  I brought in the Director of the Down Syndrome Connection support group.  The entire staff sat up straight as she advocated for my son.

Nick and I in Livermore, California…..

Much the same in middle school I enlisted the help from Little Friends Center for Autism.  I can’t say enough about the Arbor School, The Down Syndrome Connection and Little Friends.  What a gift they gave me as they showed me how to become an advocate for Nick.

So here is……….….The List!!!!!!

Top 10 Things I Have Learned While Navigating Nick through School

  1. Determine a method to communicate with the staff (communication notebook, email, daily reports.)
  2. Meet with the support teacher to discuss goals for the following year. Request all goals and reports from each department for review before the IEP meeting.
  3. Get everything down in writing in the IEP (from a 1:1 Aid to the chewy sensory toy.)
  4. I am not a bad parent because my child won’t keep gloves on/ or has a meltdown in school.
  5. Sometimes the parent has to be the one to rattle the cage.
  6. Get help when you need it (support groups, workshops, trainings, respite care, etc..)
  7. Know your rights, Read Wrightslaw.
  8. Don’t settle for just any solution if a problem
    doesn’t get better. There is always a better way.
  9. Sometimes as a parent you have to let go of your own dreams for your child so they can move down a different path.
  10. The parent is the biggest advocate for their child with special needs, trust in that.

Bringing support into IEP meeting does give a parent confidence.  But in most IEP’s my hand has been on the helm.  What I know for certain is that communication lines have to stay open.  I also learned to quit beating myself up because Nick had meltdowns (now we know that he was powerless because he couldn’t communicate his needs and it is not my bad parenting.)  Once the autism diagnosis was given, I had to reach out for help get more training and arm myself to fight the big fight.  I quit settling with the school staff and learned that I had to ask for more to help my son thrive. I wasn’t being a bitchy mom; I approached the problems in a matter of fact, but firm manner. And sometimes that means I have to be the one to rattle the cage to obtain services to support my son.  In addition, I found that just because I have a dream for Nick doesn’t mean he can fulfill it.  Facing the fork in the road that separated him from an academic curriculum to a functional curriculum enabled Nick to focus on what he was meant to do. Hello T, he just isn’t ever going to write his name, let go of that academic goal.

So here we are, Nick’s senior year and after riding some rough waves now the seas are relatively calm.  We survived and came out on the other side much wiser and stronger.  That’s what is in my noggin this week.  Until next week, I hope yours will be a *can of corn.

~Teresa

* According to Wiki Answers: The term “Can of Corn” is a phrase used to describe a softly hit baseball as it could easily be caught. The term originated as a customer would ask a grocery clerk for a can of corn the store clerk would grab a can from the top of a stack of cans, and would softly toss the can down to be caught without harm.